Interlocked molecular feedback loops in
. CLOCK/CYCLE heterodimer acts as transcriptional activator (positive element) for period (per) and timeless (tim) genes. The heterodimer of PER/TIM is phosphorylated in the cytoplasm in the presence of specific kinases, and the phosphorylated complex then acts as inhibitor for its own transcription (negative element). The VRI and PDP1 proteins regulate the levels of CLK/CYC complex, which in turn are regulated by CLK/CYC. Thus, CLK/CYC heterodimer appears to be an important component that connects the two loops and is important for sustaining molecular oscillations. The protein Cryptochrome (CRY) has been implicated in the light entrainment pathways of the Drosophila molecular clock.